6. Bearing in mind that "a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought", nuclear-weapon states should abandon nuclear deterrence policies based on preemptive moves, reduce the role of nuclear weapons in national security policy, stop developing and deploying global anti-ballistic missile systems, and prevent weaponization and arms race in the outer space. These efforts are essential for global strategic balance and stability. The United States withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and its attempt to deploy land-based intermediate-range missiles overseas will severely disrupt global strategic stability and undermine international and regional peace and security. China firmly opposes such moves. In nuclear disarmament, countries should follow a step-by-step approach based on the principles of "maintaining global strategic stability" and "undiminished security for all countries". Countries with the largest nuclear arsenals have special and primary responsibilities in nuclear disarmament. They should extend the New START Treaty and make further cuts to their nuclear stockpile. China will not accede to the unfair and unreasonable call to join any of the so-called trilateral arms control negotiations with the United States and Russia. Countries should work together to uphold the authority and efficacy of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and strive for positive outcomes at the tenth NPT review conference. We should firmly support the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and its early entry into force. We should uphold multilateralism, fully leverage the lead role of the UN, and faithfully observe the NPT, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, and UN Security Council Resolution 1540. The aim is to build a just and inclusive international non-proliferation regime.
7. Global cooperation is needed to address non-traditional security threats. We must guard against the resurgence of terrorism around the world. International counter-terrorism cooperation can only be strengthened, not weakened. Combating terrorism requires a holistic strategy that addresses both the symptoms and root causes to remove its breeding ground. Terrorism and extremism should not be linked with any particular country, ethnicity or religion, and there should not be any double standards. COVID-19 sounded the alarm on global biosecurity governance. Countries should work more closely to prevent the threat of biological weapons and bioterrorism and promote the sound development of biotechnology for the benefit of mankind. The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on global food security. It is imperative that countries further modernize the agricultural sector, increase productivity, engage in international cooperation and work together for an equitable, reasonable, sustainable and stable agricultural trade order. More technological and financial support should be given to developing countries, especially the least developed countries, to better safeguard food security in these countries.
8. The international community should step up dialogue and cooperation, on the basis of mutual respect and mutual benefit, to use cyberspace for economic and social development, international peace and stability, and global well-being. It is essential to oppose cyber war and arms race and to foster a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly cyberspace. The pressing task is to develop an international code of conduct for cyberspace that is acceptable to all. China opposes any country’s overstretching the concept of national security to restrict normal information and communications technology (ICT) development and cooperation.
The ICT revolution is advancing rapidly, and the digital economy is thriving. Together with them come increasingly salient risks and challenges to data security. It is urgent to make international rules in this area that reflect the views and interests of the majority of countries. To this end, China proposes the Global Initiative on Data Security, which mainly includes:
– standing against ICT activities that impair or steal important data of other States’ critical infrastructure;
– taking actions to prevent and put an end to activities that jeopardize personal information through the use of ICTs and opposing massive surveillance over other States with ICTs as a tool;
– encouraging and respecting companies’ independent decision to choose data storage location, and refraining from forcing domestic companies to store data gathered and obtained overseas in their own territory;
– refraining from obtaining data located in other States through companies or individuals without other States’ permission; and
– ICT products and service providers should not install backdoors in their products and services.
China calls on all governments and companies to support this Initiative, jointly shoulder global responsibility in the digital era, and realize win-win cooperation and common development.
9. 5G security is a technical issue. Any related assessment and conclusion should therefore be made based on facts and science. Access to the 5G market should be decided by the market and companies involved. As for governments, they should treat all 5G companies in a non-discriminatory manner, uphold the principles of free trade and market competition, and enable an open, fair, just and non-discriminatory business environment. No government should politicize 5G, or abuse the notion of national security to exclude or restrict a particular company. Like other technologies, 5G belongs to mankind and should be used to benefit all.
10. Countries should conduct international human rights cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and reject the politicization of human rights and the practice of double standards. The Human Rights Council and other UN agencies should work in an impartial, objective and non-selective manner, facilitate international exchanges and cooperation on human rights, and promote balanced progress of the two categories of human rights, especially the rights to subsistence and development. Under the current circumstances, it is imperative to address police brutality, failure in protecting people’s rights to life and health during the COVID-19 response, and racial discrimination in certain countries, issues that have caused grave concerns of the international community. Only in this way can we realize the lofty goal of "human rights for all".
11. Countries should support the UN, UNHCR and other multilateral organizations as the main channel in addressing the refugee issue. Countries should work to ensure the effective implementation of the Global Compact of Refugees, and do their part under the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. It is important to address war, conflict, poverty, underdevelopment and other root causes, and create conditions for the voluntary, safe and sustainable return of refugees. While unbalanced development is the main underlying cause of migration, migration has been a key driver for development. Efforts must be focused on development issues that lie at the heart of irregular migration, and prioritize sustainable development throughout the process of global migration governance. Countries of origin, transit and destination should step up coordination and collaboration as they implement the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. The implementation of the Compact must be based on respect for national sovereignty, take into full account conditions of different countries, and accommodate the interests of all parties.
12. China supports better protection of intellectual property (IP) in the world. China is committed to improving the global governance system for intellectual property and promoting global IP governance featuring consultation, cooperation and shared benefits. China will remain an active advocate, promoter and player in global cooperation on intellectual property and a staunch defender, participant and contributor of international IP rules. In the face of COVID-19, countries need to step up international cooperation on IP protection, jointly address the challenges brought by the virus, and help create an enabling environment for innovators and market entities of all countries.
13. China appreciates and supports the efforts of Secretary-General António Guterres in advancing the reforms of the United Nations in recent years. The UN needs to respond to the new situation and new tasks, and rally all parties together in a commitment to multilateralism. According to the mandates of relevant resolutions, the UN should work to improve efficiency, enhance its ability to respond to global challenges, strengthen the capacity of its development system to support Member States in implementing the 2030 Agenda, and enhance oversight and accountability. In terms of staff representation and resources distribution, the needs and interests of developing countries should be reflected as they account for four-fifths of the UN membership and 80% of the world population. All possible efforts should be made to meet the expectations from the international community.
IV. China is a founding member of the UN and the first country to sign the Charter. As the largest developing country and a permanent member of the Security Council, China embraces the lofty ideals of the UN by contributing to humanity’s cause of peace and development and promoting with concrete actions a community with a shared future for mankind.
1. China follows a path of peaceful development. We have never sought invasion, territorial expansion or spheres of influence. We are committed to developing friendship and cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence. At the same time, we will firmly defend China’s sovereignty and dignity, uphold China’s legitimate rights and interests, and safeguard international justice and equity.
China actively looks for the settlement of major regional hotspots such as the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue, the Iranian nuclear issue, Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Middle East, and Syria. As we pursue solutions to global and regional hotspot issues, we seek to do it in a Chinese way. China has dispatched more than 40,000 peacekeepers to over 30 missions, contributing more peacekeepers than any other permanent member of the Security Council. The Chinese peacekeepers are highly commended by both the UN and the host countries for their strict discipline and professionalism.
2. China has ensured that the basic needs of its 1.4 billion people are met. This year, China will lift out of poverty all of its rural residents living below the current poverty line, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This will be a great contribution to human progress. China is advancing the implementation of the 2030 Agenda at home in all respects, in line with its new philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development. China is among the first to have published a National Plan and two Progress Reports on the implementation of the Agenda, and has achieved early harvests in many areas. China is working with other countries to put development front and center in the global macro policy framework and seek greater synergy between the Belt and Road Initiative and the 2030 Agenda. China is helping other developing countries within the South-South cooperation framework with their implementation of the 2030 Agenda.
China will continue to pursue a win-win strategy of opening-up and share its development experience and opportunities with countries around the world. China’s effective COVID-19 response and head start in business reopening gives us a good opportunity to promote an open world economy at a higher level and foster a new, dual-cycle development architecture with the domestic cycle as the mainstay and with domestic and international development reinforcing each other. Such efforts will contribute to global economic recovery and bring new development opportunities to the rest of the world.
3. No human right is more important than the right to a happy life. As a country that respects and safeguards human rights, China applies the universal principles of human rights in light of the national context, promotes the mutually reinforcing development of democracy and people’s well-being, and pursues peace and development in parallel. It is committed to promoting and protecting human rights through greater development. This is a path of human rights development that suits China’s national reality. While vigorously promoting human rights at home, China follows the principles of equality, mutual trust, inclusiveness, mutual learning, win-win cooperation and common development. It takes an active part in UN human rights affairs, earnestly fulfills its international human rights obligations, and carries out extensive international cooperation on human rights. It is contributing Chinese wisdom and solutions to global governance on human rights.
4. China is firmly committed to safeguarding the UN-centered global governance system, the basic norms of international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, the authority and stature of the UN, and the central role of the UN in international affairs. As a member to nearly all universal inter-governmental organizations and a signatory to over 500 international conventions, China has faithfully fulfilled its international obligations and honored its international commitments. China will work with the global community to fight back attempts to undermine the international order or trample on international rules.
5. In the face of COVID-19, China has actively responded to the UN-initiated Global Humanitarian Response Plan: a cash donation of US$50 million to WHO, assistance in kind to over 150 countries and international organizations, and medical exports to more than 200 countries and regions. At the opening of the 73rd World Health Assembly, President Xi Jinping announced that China will provide US$2 billion in international assistance over two years, work with the UN to set up a global humanitarian response depot and hub in China, establish a cooperation mechanism for its hospitals to pair up with 30 African hospitals, make China’s COVID-19 vaccine development and deployment, when available, a global public good, and work with other G20 members to implement the Debt Service Suspension Initiative for the poorest countries. China will implement these measures in letter and spirit, and contribute to the building of a global community of health for all.
6. While facing formidable development tasks at home such as improving people’s well-being, China has readily taken international responsibilities commensurate to its development stage and national conditions, and has taken a host of policy actions in response to climate change. China’s climate target for 2020 has been met ahead of schedule, a significant contribution to the global response to climate change. An active participant in global climate governance, China is among the first state parties to the UNFCCC, and has made important contribution to the conclusion of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement and its implementation guidelines. Thanks to the concerted efforts of China and other parties, the 2019 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Madrid produced a set of decisions that upheld multilateralism and reflected the consensus on climate governance, laying the groundwork for follow-up negotiations.
7. At the 2015 summit meetings commemorating the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, President Xi Jinping announced a host of important initiatives and measures in support of the work of the UN. All of them have now been delivered on the ground.
China has registered an 8,000-strong standby force and a 300-member permanent police squad for UN peacekeeping missions. Six of its standby contingents have been elevated to Level Three in the UN Peacekeeping Capability Readiness System. As such, China now has the biggest standby force and most varieties of contingents among all UN Member States. The China-UN Peace and Development Fund has provided a total of US$67.7 million for over 80 projects, supporting the UN’s efforts in areas such as peacekeeping, counter-terrorism, energy, agriculture, infrastructure, health and education.
China has assisted other developing countries with 180 poverty reduction projects, 118 agricultural cooperation projects, 178 aid-for-trade projects, 103 projects on ecological conservation and climate change, 134 hospitals and clinics, and 123 educational and vocational training institutes. The South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund has supported over 80 projects in more than 30 developing countries, injecting impetus for global sustainable development. China has also made important contribution to women’s development in the world. With a donation of US$10 million to UN Women, China is the largest contributor among developing countries. It has completed 133 health projects for women and children and invited over 30,000 women from other developing countries to training programs in China.
Under the new circumstances, China will continue to shoulder its responsibilities and make its contribution as a major country. It will provide more global public goods and contribute its share to world peace and development. China will work with countries around the world to uphold and carry forward multilateralism, join the UN on a new journey with renewed commitments, and build a community with a shared future for mankind.